Analgesia, maternal and fetal/neonatal side effects and obstetric outcome were double-blind comparison of % bupivacaine/% fentanyl versus. Analgesia, maternal and fetal/neonatal side effects and obstetric outcome were bupivacaine % plus sufentanil µg·mL−1: a study. Presented in part at the Society for Obstetric Anesthesia and boluses of bupivacaine % + fentanyl 2 −1 as part of a programmed.

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Close mobile search navigation Article navigation. Epidural analgesia does not increase caesarean section rates. They do not last as long as traditional top-ups and may be inadequate for instrumental vaginal delivery. It was concluded that continuous lumbar epidural analgesia with 8 ml of 0. It has been promoted as having less motor blocking effect as well as a better safety profile than bupivacaine.

A meta-analysis of RCTs comparing epidural with non-epidural analgesia during labour found that instrumental vaginal deliveries were more common in those receiving epidural analgesia, with an odds ratio of 2. Although there have been case reports of meningitis associated with CSE, a systematic review of CSE vs epidural analgesia did not suggest an increased incidence.

Compared with other methods, epidural analgesia provides superior analgesia in labour. Continuous infusion epidural obwtetric during Labour: Bearing in mind the above, how can we optimize labour epidural analgesia to ensure superior analgesia while minimizing the effects on labour?

It furthers the University’s objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide. Effect of low-dose mobile versus traditional epidural techniques on mode of delivery: Several recent, well-powered RCTs confirm that epidural analgesia during labour is not associated with an increased incidence of back pain after childbirth.

Though randomized controlled trials RCT are considered the gold standard for research, in labour they can be difficult to blind and therefore, there is potential for observer bias. The low-dose regimen provides effective, rapid onset analgesia and high maternal satisfaction rates when compared with traditional top-ups.


Study design is significant when assessing the evidence. Morphine, a relatively long-acting opioid, is poorly lipid soluble and may accumulate in the CSF where it can spread cephalad, potentially causing late respiratory depression. In practise, LDI provide adequate analgesia and cardiovascular stability but do not decrease anaesthetic workload when compared with midwife top ups as failure of analgesia requires increased anaesthetic intervention.

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There is a theoretical risk of damage to the neurological structures within the pelvis with longer labours, but this is difficult to quantify.

Effect of epidural analgesia on labour and outcome. CSE does not seem to decrease the number of anaesthetic interventions required, the duration of labour or the mode of delivery when compared with epidural analgesia. Some studies report benefits for the neonate, including a reduction in the incidence of low APGAR scores at 5 min and in the need for naloxone. Article Tools Print this article.

Pain in labour is an extremely agonising experience for most women. Effect of pH-adjustment of bupivacaine on onset and duration of epidural analgesia in parturient. In theory, LDI should decrease anaesthetic workload, provide more constant analgesia and better haemodynamic stability and sterility.

CJA ; 38 3: Levobupivacaine is a single enantiomer LA and a stereoisomer of bupivacaine. J Anesth Clin Pharmacol ; 20 3: It undergoes ester hydrolysis; minimizing placental transmission but its duration of action is too short for analgesia. The effectiveness of analgesia was better. Traditionally, concentrated local anaesthetic LA solutions were used in the initial dose to establish epidural analgesia, but lower concentrations of LA and opioid have been shown to establish good analgesia within a satisfactory time scale.

Ropivacaine is another single enantiomer LA.

Epidural analgesia in labour | BJA Education | Oxford Academic

Continuous infusion epidural 0.00625 in obstetrics: In MLAC studies, the relative analgesic potency of ropivacaine to bupivacaine was 0. Maternal satisfaction is an important 00.625 but is influenced by many other factors, including outcome of labour, support and interaction with staff, and control over pain rather than its amelioration. In a drive to decrease instrumental deliveries, ever-lower dose regimens have been studied and found to provide effective analgesia.


Variations in practice between obstetricians, even within a single obstetric unit, can and do result in widely different SVD and operative delivery rates.

This is a correction to: The clinical relevance of this is unclear. In the same meta-analysis of RCTs of epidural vs non-epidural analgesia, epidural analgesia was found to prolong labour, though only modestly. A comparison of epidural analgesia with 0. Extradural analgesia with clonidine and fentanyl compared with 0.

The onset of analgesia was significantly faster in 0. This is clearly achieved with epidural analgesia. Epidurals have consistently been shown to bostetric superior analgesia when compared with non-epidural analgesia for labour pain, although this is not always associated with greater maternal satisfaction. Obsttetric mode of delivery and the Apgar scores of the neonates at 1 and 5 minutes were comparable.

In addition, there are equipment and cost issues to consider.

After childbirth there is no difference in the incidence of long-term back pain, disability or movement restriction between women who have epidurals and those who have not.

Given the choice, it would seem preferable to use the drug with the best safety profile, although this will have cost implications. It is equipotent to 0.06225 with a minimal local analgesic concentration MLAC ratio of 0.