This is a reprint of the English Translation of the Nyaya Sutras of Gautama by Mm . Dr. Ganganatha Jha, the versatile Sanskrit scholar who will ever be. Where There’s Smoke There’s Fire: Gautama’s Nyāya-Sūtra. Posted on 10 December The Nyāya-Sūtra inaugurates a tradition of logical and. Nyaya: Gautama’s Nyaya-sutra, with Vatsyayana’s commentary (Indian philosophy in its sources) [Gautama (Authority on Nyayasastra)] on *FREE*.

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Comparison is the knowledge of a thing through its similarity to another thing previously well known. We acknowledge that a word indicates a certain object, but we deny that the object is naturally or necessarily OonQQCted with the word.

The memory of the past proves tlieprevious birth as well as the existence of the soul. Though Moggaliputta Tissa has not made any actual reference to Logic or Nyaya, his mention of some of its technical terms warrants us to suppose that, that philosophy existed in some shape in India in his time about B.

Some say that there is no such thing as other- ness because what is called ” other” in reference to some other is. An occasion for rebuke arises when one mis- understands or does not understand at gautamx. But such a conclusion is absurd. The objector relying on the analogy of golden ornaments says that in the case of letters the theory of modification does gautamaa suffer by i reaching the condition of y and again returning to its original form. You cannot say that there is non-perception of the cause of cessation of sound, because we actually perceive that by the contact of our hand we can stop the sound of a gong.

If any one were to say that just as a single soldier or a single tree may not be seen from a distance but an army consisting of numerous soldiers or a forest consisting of numerous eutra is seen, so a single atom may not be perceptible but a jar consisting of numerous atoms will be perceptible, and these atoms being called ‘ one jar,’ the use of ‘ one ‘ will not vanish.


Purpose refers to the thing which one endeavours to attain or avoid.

A soul which is no longer gautqma to transmigration is freed from all pains. This is a perceived fact which cannot be altered by our words.

When, for gauta,a, we perceive a jar we perceive also its genus i. These are distinguished by the senses in whose spheres they lie or by the objects which they illumine. Fuhrer’a Pabhosa inscriptions in Epigraphia lndica, Vol.

If there were no whole there would, it is replied, be non-perception of all. Some say that the senses are not many as none of them is independent of touch skin.

Nyāya Sūtras – Wikipedia

Perfection is attained by the correct knowledge about true nature of sixteen categories: That which is really eternal belongs to the three times. In reply we say that not all things cognised by our sense are non-eternal, but only those that belong to a certain genus. This verbal trick will not, after all, affect our position. A man who has committed a certain sin may not suifer its consequences in this life and unless there is a soul continuing to his next life he will not suffer them at all.

Some say that non-existence is not a means of right knowledge because there is no object which is known by it. Word verbal testimony is the instructive asser- tion of a reliable person. In the case of letters, however, there is no fixed rule, e. It is the eye that, according to the objectors, apprehends colour, and there is no necessity for assuming a soul distinct from the eye for the purpose of explaining the apprehen- sion of colour.


In reply we say that it is not so. Put very briefly, this is the [Buddhist] doctrine that human beings have no soul, no self, no unchanging essence. According to the objector there is difference between the letter i or i and its modification y as there is difference between the substance cotton and its modification thread. It is not possible to impose injunctions and pro- hibitions on facts which are perceived or inferred to be of some fixed character.

There is a whole because we can hold, pull, etc.

An Introduction to the Philosophy of Hinduism [79]. Discussion is the adoption of one of two oppos- ing sides.

The Nyaya-Sutras Of Gautama: With The Bhasya Of Vatsyayana And The Vartika Of Uddyotakara

The epistemic rationale for inference as a reliable source of knowledge, and Nyaya’s theory has been a major contribution to the diverse schools of Hinduism, and other schools looked up to Nyaya scholars for insights on correct knowledge and incorrect knowledge through sutta. The Nyayasutra is divided into five books, each book subdivided into two chapters each.

An atom, on the other hand, is eternal though not intangible. The two main divisions of the Veda are 1 hymn and 2 ritual. Write a product review.

But in reality the y in both the cases is of the same bulk. Hence though not-blueness is not a positive mark it serves as a negative mark in relation to blueness. Chandogya M ;24 ;9 ;, and Now, the mind, which is an atomic substance, cannot be conjoined with more than one sense- organ at a time, hence there cannot occur more acts of perception than one at one time.