I send you a good paper that prove my transformation and my quantization of gravity is completely right and agreed completely also with Hafele-Keating. The Hafele–Keating experiment was a test of the theory of relativity. In October , Joseph C. Hafele, a physicist, and Richard E. Keating, an. I teach physics, and I love the Hafele-Keating experiment as a way to introduce relativity. Because the experiment has a lot of charisma, it’s cool to be able to.

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If you plug in numbers for a 48 hour round trip flight at constant speed at the equator, you get ns and ns for leating eastbound and westbound flights respectively. When reunited, the three sets of clocks were found to disagree with one another, and their differences were consistent with the predictions of special and general relativity.

There is a web site and mailing list Time Nuts for people who do high-precision timing experiments for fun, and they have a museum with old photos and documentation.

The height and velocity terms were predicted by Einstein in and — however the Sagnac term was unknown to Einstein when he wrote his papers on special relativity, so this effect was never hafrle by Einstein. Redefining Motion after the Hafele and Keating Experiment. Article in Google Books.

Il Nuovo Cimento B. These results provide an unambiguous empirical resolution of the famous clock “paradox” with macroscopic clocks. Nowadays both gravitational and velocity effects are, for example, routinely incorporated into the calculations used for the Global Positioning System.


Here lies the problem – if you have a series of clocks around the equator of the earth and you carry a portable clock eastward to synchronize each successive clock, when you reach the last hafeel, the first clock will lead the last clock by This is a valid approximation in this case since the time difference is many kewting of magnitude smaller than the time itself, and this allows us to model the difference between two measurable times. If this was a snapshot taken by the crew or another passenger, then it is now in the public domain due to its publication without notice before Index Hafele and Keating.

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Performance and results of portable clocks in aircraft PDF. A reenactment of the original experiment by the National Physical Laboratory took place in on the 25th anniversary of the original experiment, using more precise atomic clocks during a flight from London to Washington, D.

There is therefore no alternative to the ether hypothesis. Does this not make the fixed stars a physically privileged reference frame? Kaeting we take the center of the earth as an approximation to an inertial frame, then we can compute the difference between a surface clock and the aircraft clock. Keqting is, clocks at higher altitude tick kaeting than clocks on Earth’s surface. Naval Observatory, then it is a public-domain product of the U.

The predicted value of ns for the westward flight of The time difference was measured by direct clock comparison at the ground before and after the flight, as well as during the flight by laser pulses of 0. This corresponds to an krating height of m, a reasonable flight altitude for a commercial airline.

Thence we hafelw that a balance-clock at the equator must go more slowly, by a very small amount, than a precisely similar clock situated at one of the poles under otherwise identical conditions.

Space, Time, Matter and Cosmology 3rd, illustrated ed. A Question of Time”.

Hafele and Keating Experiment

The Hafele—Keating experiment was a test of the theory of relativity. Retrieved from ” https: The clock on the train travelling east counted slower compared to the stationary clock at To.

One-way speed of light Test theories of special relativity Standard-Model Extension. This is the first experiment I know of in which kinematic time dilation was observed using an atomic clock, without any gravitational time dilation. As shown in Fig. Consider the diagram in Fig.


The argument usually goes that the setup on the right encloses an area and therefore experiences the Sagnac effect due to the rotation of the earth, and thereby the table is not an inertial frame.

Historical photos and information about the Hafele-Keating and Alley experiments

From Popular Mechanics, Januaryp. Any biographical information about Hafele or Keating. This photo, from the same era as the Hafele-Keating experiment, shows U. I don’t know the copyright status of the bottom one.

I’m guessing that the top photo might be public domain, since the plane is a Navy plane. In the course of digging up the photos, I ended up compiling some other links and information. The Concepts Behind an Elegant Language illustrated ed. This is similar to the situation of Fig. It is leating public-domain product of the U. This effect, called time dilationhas been confirmed in many tests of special relativitysuch as the Ives—Stilwell experiment and experimental testing of time dilation.

Physics > General Physics

This expression can be used to compute the time dilation in the Hafele-Keating experiment in which an atomic clock was taken aboard an aircraft and compared to a ground-based closk. Aircraft Time Dilation For an aircraft flying over the equator, its clocks will show a time shift relative to a fixed surface clock which can be approximately keatjng by the expression. Interactions of bodies and physical systems with the universe cannot be described in terms of Mach’s hypothesis, since this is untenable.